• All faculty members of color: (National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_315.20.asp)
    • In 2007: 18.2% of all faculty positions; 17.4% of associate professorships; 13.3% of full professorships
    • In 2011: 20.7% of all faculty positions; 20.4% of associate professorships; 15.5% of full professorships
    • Numbers for male & female faculty members of color are similar
  • Women of Color under-represented in Academia (Institute of Education Sciences data, U.S. Department of Education, Catalyst, http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-academia#us) (IPEDS Survey 2013, Catalyst)
    • Asian women held 4.8% of tenure-track positions and 2.6% of tenured positions.
    • Black women held 3.7% of tenure-track positions and 2.2% of tenured positions.
    • Hispanic women held 2.5% of tenure-track positions and 2.3% of tenured positions
  • As of 2013, women held 48.4% of all tenure-track positions, only 37.5% of tenured positions (IPEDS Survey 2013, Catalyst)
    • Women were more likely to be found in lower-ranking academic positions (AAUP 2014 data, Catalyst)
    • 5% of female faculty members are in non-tenure track positions, vs. 19.6% of male faculty members (AAUP 2014 Data, Catalyst)
    • As of 2011, Men still held ¾ of full professorships, with marginal increases over the past few decades in the proportion of female full professors (AAUP, “Ivory Ceiling”)
    • Women held 56.8% of all instructor positions, which is among the lowest ranking positions in academia (IPEDS Survey 2013, Catalyst)
  • Raising a family negatively impacts women’s academic careers (Mason 2013, Catalyst)
    • Among tenured faculty, only 44% of women were married with children, compared to 70% of men (Mason 2013, Catalyst)
  • An analysis of 106 tenure-track positions at the University of Southern California revealed a promotion gap (Junn 2012, Catalyst)
    • Between 1998 and 2012, 92% of white male faculty were awarded tenure, while the same was true of only 55% of women and minority faculty (Junn 2012, Catalyst)
  • Men Outearn Women at Higher Levels
    • Among Ivy League institutions, Dartmouth has the highest gender wage gap, at 17.2% (Hardwick 2014, Catalyst)
    • At all categories of institutions, full professors who are women earned on average $108,031 a year compared to $123,899 (AAUP 2014 Data, Catalyst)
    • Women instructors earned $49,320 a year, compared to $50,958 for men instructors (AAUP 2014 Data, Catalyst)
  • Women Have Low Representation in Business Schools
    • Women were 23.6% of tenured faculty and 19.0% of full professors at business schools (BizEd 2015, Catalyst)
    • Women held 19.3% of dean positions and 33.1% of associate dean positions (BizEd 2015, Catalyst)
  • Women’s progress in Academia:
    • Women are more likely to lead two-year institutions than four-year institutions (Williams June 2015, Catalyst)
    • Only 1 in 4 College presidents are women (Williams June 2015, Catalyst)
    • About 33% of community college presidents are women compared to 23% of bachelor’s and master’s institutions and 22% of doctoral institutions (Williams June 2015, Catalyst)
    • From 1986 to 2011 the number of women college and university presidents jumped from 10% to 26%, a 160% increase (Cook 2012, Catalyst)

Key points from other relevant studies:

Note: While there are many small-scale qualitative studies, there seems to be an absence of quantitative studies on the promotion of faculty members of color. But as the data on the previous slide and an Inside Higher Education article suggest, we’d expect to see a greater increase in the proportion of full professorships held by faculty members of color than has actually occurred since 2007 (https://www.insidehighered.com/advice/2015/06/26/essay-diversity-issues-and-midcareer-faculty-members)

  • Analysis by a U of Pennsylvania researcher shows that nationwide, across disciplines, women are 10% less likely to attain promotion to full professor than men are, even when controlling for research productivity, educational background, institution type, race, ethnicity, and nationality (AAUP 2011)
  • A 2006 study by the Modern Language Association showed that: (AAUP 2011)
    • Women are less likely to be promoted to full professor than are their male colleagues
    • When women are promoted to full, it takes 1 to 3 years longer (longest at doctoral universities)
  • A study of tenured and tenure-track women in STEM fields by Georgia Institute of Technology researchers (published in 2006) found that part of the explanation may lie in ambiguous criteria for promotion to full professor (AAUP 2011)
  • A Stanford study investigated the number of hours that associate professors from several different demographics dedicate to different types of service:
    • When the hours cross types of service, women of color contribute the highest number, 30 hours/week,
    • White women contribute the second highest number, 28 hours/week,
    • Men of color contribute 26 hours/week, and,
    • White men contribute 19 hours/week.
      • Stanford Study recommendations:
        • Ensure equal P&T standards
        • Raise awareness of implicit bias
        • Mentoring programs
      • The AAUP did a study of 350 male and female faculty members at U Mass Amherst in 2008-09 and found: (AAUP 2011)
        • Women less likely to be promoted than men
        • Women’s promotions to full take longer
        • Some possible explanations:
          • ¾ of women associate profs had taken on major service roles, while only ½ of men associate profs had done so
          • Women’s service roles tended to relate to (less prestigious) undergraduate education, while men’s tended to relate to research or graduate education; these women tended to take longer to reach promotion
          • Distribution of work time:
            • Both genders report working the same # of hours, but
            • Men report spending 7.5 hours more per week on research than do women
            • Women taught 1 more hour per week than did men, mentored for 2 more hours, and did 5 more hours of service
            • Time percentage comparisons:
              • Research 37% men, 25% women
              • Service 20% men, 27% women
            • Men and women report spending equal time on service to the profession (5.4 hours/week), but women reported spending 11.6 hours/week on university service, while men reporting spending 7 hours
            • These patterns are a bit more pronounced for STEM associate professors:
              • On average, STEM men and women associate professors spent less time teaching than associate professors in other disciplines.
              • STEM men spent significantly more time on research 42% than STEM women 27%
              • STEM women put in more time mentoring 21% vs. 15% for men
              • As for performing service 25% of the time for women compared to 20% for men
            • Women associate professors reported feeling pressured into service, noting that this service was then devalued during promotion reviews. They also reported feeling guilt that others would be pressured into extra work if they said ‘no.’
          • Some AAUP recommendations:
            • Ensure that all TT faculty members contribute equally to service
            • Ensure that promotion procedures reward service adequately
            • Universities should reward and publicize service, mentoring, and teaching achievements

Compiled by Ana Laura Lizardo, CSU for the SCSWF CSU December 2015